(Updated Oct 15th, 2016)
"Layer of Protection Analysis - A Brief Tutorial"
Speaker: Dr. Mardy Kazarians
Process Hazard Analysis (PHA), using Guideword Style Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) and other methodologies, is now commonly used in the petroleum refining and chemical industries to identify potential safety, environmental and business vulnerabilities. An integral part of PHA is risk ranking of potential hazard scenarios. For those scenarios with unacceptable risk level, possible risk mitigating options are examined. One risk mitigating option relies on instrumented safety devices. The level of risk reduction, also known as the Safety Integrity Level (SIL), of these systems is used in closing the identified risk gap.
The Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) methodology was developed to assist the analysts in estimating the risk gap and establishing the SIL of the needed safety systems. LOPA is in effect a simplified version of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) using pre-set rules and failure probability values. The overall concept underlying LOPA is discussed as part of this presentation. The LOPA method and typical uses will be demonstrated through examples from the process industry.
Dr. Mardy Kazarians has worked in the areas of risk and safety since the latter part of the 1970s. Mr. Kazarians began his career with Pickard, Lowe and Garrick, Inc. (now part of ABS Consulting) and from there moved on to Arthur D. Little, Inc. before founding Kazarians & Associates, Inc. in 1992. He started his career in the nuclear industry and became involved with safety and risk analyses for the chemical and petroleum industries following the Bhopal disaster in 1984. He has developed Process Safety Management (PSM) and Risk Management Programs (RMPs) for a large number of facilities. He has conducted HAZOP studies as part of PSM and RMP program development, for refinery units and for unique operations from various industries. As part of HAZOP studies, he has conducted Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA), the subject of today’s discussion. He has helped clients use the results of LOPA to establish the reliability level (Safety Integrity Level) of instrumented safety systems. He holds a BS in Physics from Sharif University of Technology in Iran and an MS and PhD in Engineering from the University of California, Los Angeles.
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